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Understanding How Escrow Accounts Work in Real Estate

When it comes to buying a home, understanding the intricacies of escrow accounts can save you a lot of headaches—and potentially a lot of money. Let’s break down the essentials of escrow accounts, diving into how they work, the various components involved, and what you should watch out for to avoid costly mistakes.

What is an Escrow Account?

An escrow account is a legal arrangement where a third party temporarily holds money or property until a particular condition has been met—in this case, usually the closing of a property sale.

Different Types of Escrow Accounts

  • Title Company Escrow: A title company holds earnest money deposits during a real estate transaction until the sale is finalized.
  • Mortgage Escrow: Your mortgage lender sets up an account to collect and pay your property taxes and homeowner’s insurance.

Components of a Mortgage Escrow Account

Principal and Interest (P&I)

Your mortgage payment is split between paying down the loan principal and interest. This part of your payment goes directly towards owning your home and the lender’s fee for providing the loan.


Property taxes are an ongoing cost of homeownership. By including taxes in your mortgage payment, your lender ensures that these taxes are paid on time, avoiding any liens against the property.


Homeowner’s Insurance Policy Details

You need homeowner’s insurance to protect your investment against risks like fire, storms, or theft. Usually, lenders require you to bring a one-year prepaid insurance policy to the closing table. This coverage remains in place for the entire year, and your monthly payments contribute to the next year’s premium.

Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI) / Mortgage Insurance Premium (MIP)

Explanation of PMI/MIP

If your down payment is less than 20%, lenders require PMI or MIP to protect themselves against the risk of you defaulting on the loan. These premiums are part of your monthly escrow payment.

Mistakes in Not Accounting for PMI/MIP

PMI/MIP can be a hidden cost if you’re not paying attention. Ignoring these premiums can lead to a significant loss of income.

For example:

  • Let’s say your PMI is $100 a month.
  • If you overlook this, you could lose $1,200 per year.

Removing PMI

Requirements for Removing PMI

You can request PMI removal once you have at least 20% equity in your home, typically shown through on-time payments and a new appraisal.

  • Conventional Loans: You can call your lender to remove PMI when you reach 80% LTV, or it will automatically drop off at 78% LTV.
  • FHA Loans: Usually more stringent, often requiring the insurance to stay for the life of the loan.

Collecting Escrow Reserves at Closing

Lenders often require two months of property taxes and insurance upfront to build a buffer in your escrow account.

Reasons for Collecting Reserves

This reserve ensures there are always enough funds available to cover any unexpected increases in property taxes or insurance premiums.

Explaining the Need for Ongoing Escrow to Buyer

A common question from buyers is why they need to make monthly escrow payments if they’ve prepaid for one year of insurance. Here’s a simple way to break it down:

The Hoagie Example

Imagine your insurance coverage as a hoagie sandwich. Each month, you’re taking a bite and gradually paying for the next sandwich you’ll need once this one is finished.

  • Today: You buy insurance for ($1,200) for the next year.
  • Every Month: You set aside $100 for next year’s policy.
  • End of Year: You have a fully-funded new policy without a large, lump-sum payment.

Insurance Policy Changes

Submitting Buyer’s New Policy to Lender

When you sell a property and the buyer gets a new insurance policy, you’ll need to update the mortgage company with these changes.

Canceling Seller’s Old Policy

Cancel the old policy to avoid double payments. Insurance companies are legally required to refund any premiums if they overlap with the new policy.

Calling for an Escrow Analysis

Lenders usually conduct an escrow analysis annually. However, you can request an immediate analysis when there are significant changes, like replacing an insurance policy.

Avoiding Underpayment/Overpayment

Regularly request an escrow analysis to align your payments with current insurance and tax amounts. This keeps your finances accurate and avoids any unexpected shortages or overages.

Escrow Shortages

Covering a Shortage

If an escrow analysis shows a shortage, you can:

  1. Make a lump-sum payment.
  2. Spread the repayment over 6-12 months.

Role of Loan Servicing Companies

Handling escrow administration can be complex. Loan servicing companies can:

  • Manage monthly payments for taxes and insurance.
  • Handle all escrow analysis and adjustments.
  • Provide a buffer against possible shortages.

Using a third-party loan servicing company simplifies the process, especially when dealing with multiple properties.

End-of-Year Reimbursements

Overpayments Refunded from Escrow Account

If there’s an overpayment, the lender refunds the excess amount. This keeps the account balanced, ensuring you’re not paying more than necessary.

Forced Insurance Scenarios

Replacing Force-Placed Insurance after Purchase

Sometimes lenders will place insurance on a property if the original policy lapses. Be sure to replace any forced insurance immediately to avoid higher costs and ensure proper coverage.

Final Insights

Understanding the workings of an escrow account isn’t just a minor detail—it’s crucial for effectively managing your real estate investments. From knowing the components of escrow to understanding PMI/MIP intricacies and handling insurance changes, every aspect contributes to ensuring you maximize your investment returns and minimize potential losses. Properly managing your escrow accounts can save you from hidden costs and keep your finances in good health. Stay informed, stay prepared, and you’ll master the escrow game in no time.

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